The International Tinnitus Journal

The International Tinnitus Journal

Official Journal of the Neurootological and Equilibriometric Society
Official Journal of the Brazil Federal District Otorhinolaryngologist Society

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ISSN: 0946-5448

Abstract

Principles of Tinnitology: Tinnitus Diagnosis and Treatment A Tinnitus-Targeted Therapy

Author(s): Abraham Shulman, Barbara Goldstein

Objective: To provide to the tinnitus professional a rationale for establishing accuracy in tinnitus diagnosis and the selection of modalities of therapy (i.e., medication, instrumentation, and surgery) for attempting tinnitus relief for patients with tinnitus diagnosed by completion of a medical-audiological tinnitus protocol (MATPP) and clinical course and found to be subjective idiopathic tinnitus of the severe disabling type (SIT). Background: The completion of a MATPP has been recommended since 1977 for each tinnitus patient in an attempt to establish an accurate diagnosis. A tinnitus-targeted therapy (TTT), a combined treatment of medication and instrumentation focusing on pharmacotherapy, has evolved from our ongoing clinical experience since 1977 (now in excess of 10,000 SIT patients) [1-4]. Principles for SIT treatment have evolved from the TTT experience that provides a rationale for attempting tinnitus relief. In this report, the term tinnitus refers to SIT.

Method: The strategies of TTT are based on the clinical translation for SIT diagnosis and treatment of (1) fundamentals of neuro-otological diagnosis; (2) fundamentals of sensory physiology; (3) extrapolation for treatment of known underlying neurochemistries from nuclear medicine imaging results e.g. single-photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography; (4) hypothesis of mechanism of tinnitus production , Tinnitus Dysynchrony Synchrony Theory (TDST) [5] , and hypothesis of the transformation-transition of the sensation of an aberrant auditory sensation-tinnitus (i.e., sensory component)-to one of affect (i.e., the emotional-behavioral component), Final Common Pathway of Tinnitus (FCP)[8]; and (5) innovative application of drug therapies designed for indications other than tinnitus [2,3].

Results and Conclusion: The ongoing clinical application of a rationale based on principles of diagnosis and treatment for SIT, which has evolved from our TTT clinical experience in SIT patients, continues to result in long-term tinnitus relief: in excess of 1 year in approximately 75% to 85% with medication and in 10% to 15% with instrumentation. SIT patients resistant to therapy persist at 10% to 15%.

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